Unique Titanium Surfaces for Enhanced Blood Compatibility


Available for Licensing

IP Status

US Provisional Patent


Ketul C. Popat
Vignesh K Manivasagam

Reference No: 2021-045
Licensing Manager

Steve Foster

At a Glance

Researchers at Colorado State University have developed unique nanotexture surfaces on titanium that are both superhemophobic and superhydrophobic to improve hemocompatibility and simultaneously have antibacterial properties for bio-implants. These characteristics can improve implant life, inflammation, and avoid biofilm formation.



Titanium is one of the most commonly used metals for bio-implants due to its excellent properties including strength-weight ratio, biological inertness, passivating oxide layer, dimorphic properties, and biofilm formation.  However, for blood contacting implants, titanium surfaces often promote thrombosis due to its two-dimensional planar surface.  Over the last two decades research has shown that implants with surface topography plays a major role in dictating hemocompatibility and cell compatibility of such devices prompting researchers to investigate various techniques (e.g., acid coating, etching, anodization, laser oxidation, and hydrothermal treatment) to produce unique nanostructures on implant surface.  More recently, studies have shown that superhydrophobic surfaces can reduce blood clotting due to the minimum contact with the surface.

Technology Overview

In this invention, a simple thermochemical treatment was used to fabricate micro-nano surface topography on a titanium surface. This surface was further modified with silane and PEG to make it both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic. Results from Figure 1, below, showed that all modified surfaces prevented bacteria colonization formation compared to Ti. This superhydrophobic nTi-S surface is thus antibacterial and suitable for implantable medical devices. 

Bar graph comparing different materials for biofilm formation

 Figure 1, results of percentages of live bacteria (left) and dead bacteria (right). Bacterial adhesion and proliferation studies were done on at least 9 different substrates of each surface. Titanium, nanostructure Titanium, nanostructure Titanium modified with Silane, and nanostructure Titanium modified with PEG, shown left to right.

  • Significant enhancement in hemocompatibility
  • Reduces platelet adhesion and activation
  • Reduces bacterial adhesion to the surface
  • Surface maintains stable hierarchical structures (both nano and micron level)
  • Biomedical devices
  • Blood contacting medical devices (e.g., stents, mechanical heart valves, occlusion devices, left ventricular assist devices, etc.)

Last updated: October 2022