Enhanced Biocompatible Coating for Cardiovascular and other Blood-Contacting Materials

An artists' rendering of a stent being placed into a vein

Available for Licensing
TRL: 2

IP Status

US Provisional Patent


Matthew Kipper

Ketul Popat

Melissa Reynolds

Jessi Vlcek

Reference No: .2022-026
Licensing Manager

Steve Foster


At a Glance

Researchers at Colorado State University have developed a novel coating for blood-contacting materials and implants. By alternating bi-layers of materials, researchers incorporated elements of multiple materials that work synergistically to control and modulate factors such as blood protein adsorption, inhibition of leukocyte and platelet adhesion and activation, reduction of inflammatory and immune responses, and exhibit antimicrobial activity. These new coatings may improve the durability and restenosis of cardiovascular stents, artificial valves, and other materials that experience high rates of blood flow. Additionally, embedded chemicals and drugs can enhance the coating’s ability to bind to surfaces, and may lead to drug-eluting and drug-releasing implantable devices.


Heart disease is the leading cause of death globally, an estimated 32% of deaths worldwide (2). While cardiovascular health has many factors and interventions including lifestyle changes and medications, often surgical interventions are required. Most common surgical interventions include the coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), with 340,000 performed in the US, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), with 500,000 per year, as well as artificial valve placements, with 182,000 per year and pacemakers, with over 200,000 per year (3,5,4,1 respectively). These procedures involve placements of materials in or around the cardiovascular system, and are in contact with high pressure blood flow. The materials used today in these procedures may cause immune responses, inflammation, and can lead to restenosis (re-narrowing of the vessel or artery) and may exasperate coronary artery disease. This restenosis is seen in about 50% of patients, and can be very hard to continue to treat (6). By coating the surface of these materials with signaling pathway molecules, proteins, and chemical structures, the devices are better able to withstand shear fluid flow in vivo and prevent restenosis.  


The coating includes polyelectrolyte multilayers have alternating layers that allow for improved blood-compatibility of surfaces. These layers include polyanions and polycations, and may be modified with various chemical species, proteins, and biomimetic signaling molecules to enhance blood compatibility, improve durability, prevent degradation, and release therapeutic agents in a controlled release.

Methods and structures are confidential, please contact our office to learn more.

  • Enhanced blood compatibility of blood-contacting devices
  • Improved durability in shear fluid stress environments, i.e. in vivo
  • Coating can be applied to many different material surfaces and devices
  • Ability to tailor coating to both surface type and desired traits is unmatched tunability
  • Signaling molecules modulate in vivo processes and may improve outcomes
  • Feasibility of drug species implantation and controlled release offers further uses
  • Cardiovascular stents
  • Cardiovascular hearts
  • Pacemakers
  • Dialysis machinery
  • Cardiopulmonary bypass machinery
  • Blood storage devices
  • Blood treatment


(1) Bhatia, Neal, and Mikhael El-Chami. “Leadless Pacemakers: A Contemporary Review.” Journal of Geriatric Cardiology : JGC, Science Press, Apr. 2018, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5997619/#:~:text=Over%20one%20million%20cardiac%20pacemakers,numbers%20are%20expected%20to%20grow.

(2) “Cardiovascular Diseases.” World Health Organization, World Health Organization, https://www.who.int/health-topics/cardiovascular-diseases#tab=tab_1.

(3) iData Research. “CABG Procedures Performed a Year in the U.S.” IData Research, 21 June 2021, https://idataresearch.com/new-study-shows-approximately-340000-cabg-procedures-per-year-in-the-united-states/.

(4) iData Research. “Heart Valve Replacements per Year in the United States.” IData Research, 25 June 2021, https://idataresearch.com/over-182000-heart-valve-replacements-per-year-in-the-united-states/#:~:text=Over%20182%2C000%20Heart%20Valve%20Replacements%20Per%20Year%20in%20the%20United%20States,-13%2F11%2F2020&text=According%20to%20the%20latest%20Cardiac,year%20in%20the%20United%20States.

(5) Pal, PharmD PhD, Somnath. “The Rising Use of Coronary Artery Stents.” U.S. Pharmacist – The Leading Journal in Pharmacy, U.S. Pharmacist, 21 Mar. 2007, https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/the-rising-use-of-coronary-artery-stents.

(6) Smith Jr, Sidney C., et al. “ACC/AHA Guidelines for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (Revision of the 1993 PTCA Guidelines)-Executive Summary.” Circulation AHA Journals, American Heart Associate, 19 June 2001, https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/01.CIR.103.24.3019#:~:text=II.-,General%20Considerations%20and%20Background,procedures%20are%20performed%20annually%20worldwide.

Last updated: December 2022